# 16 which of the following is not a good “driving force” for spontaneity? Advanced Guide

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### Entropy – 2nd Law of Thermodynamics – Enthalpy \u0026 Microstates

Entropy – 2nd Law of Thermodynamics – Enthalpy \u0026 Microstates
Entropy – 2nd Law of Thermodynamics – Enthalpy \u0026 Microstates

### 19.1 Spontaneous Processes [1]

Review sections 5.2 – 5.7 in the textbook, especially topics including: The 1st Law of Thermodynamics, Enthalpy, and how q and ΔH are related.. In Chapter 5, the term enthalpy was introduced and in this chapter we will use enthalpy and introduce a new concept, entropy, to tell a more complete story of Thermodynamics.
The first law of Thermodynamics provides the means for accounting for energy, but it gives no hint as to why a particular process occurs in a given direction. A process is considered to be spontaneous if it occurs without outside intervention, and the driving force for a spontaneous process is an increase in entropy

### What are the two factors that determine the spontaneous reaction? [2]

What are the two factors that determine the spontaneous reaction?. Hint: A reaction is any process in which the starting materials usually called as the reactants are converted to the final products usually called the products
Both the reactions are determined by the physical properties of the thermodynamics.. Thermodynamics is the branch of chemistry that deals with the flow of heat, its study and the laws used to study and determine them.
A reaction is said to be non spontaneous or non feasible if and only iff it has no tendency to take place in nature in a simple manner only. Like flow of liquids from bottom to top without any mechanical force.

### What makes a chemical reaction spontaneous? Enthalpy or Entropy or Free energy? [3]

What makes a chemical reaction spontaneous? Enthalpy or Entropy or Free energy?. All spontaneous physical and chemical changes take place in the direction of a decrease in free energy
When ΔG is negative, the reaction would go in the direction of reactants forming products.. A reaction is called spontaneous when it takes place of its own accord without any external help.
It is an exothermic reaction and it is a spontaneous reaction .. Similarly there are spontaneous reactions which are endothermic, like

### 2023] 14 Which Of The Following Is Not A Good “driving Force” For Spontaneity? Guides [4]

You are reading about which of the following is not a good “driving force” for spontaneity?. Here are the best content from the team C0 thuy son tnhp synthesized and compiled from many sources, see more in the category How To.
14 SOLVED: Which of the following statements is incorrect? Exothermicity is an important driving force for spontaneity. Significance depends on the temperature at which the process occurs
Thermo dynamics(23- Driving force for a spontaneous process). Thermo dynamics(23- Driving force for a spontaneous process)

### [Solved] For spontaneous processes which of the following is FALSE A A [5]

For spontaneous processes which of the following is FALSE A A. For spontaneous processes, which of the following is FALSE? A) A process that is spontaneous in one direction is not spontaneous in the opposite direction under those conditions
C) A good driving force for spontaneity is for a system to release heat D) A good driving force for spontaneity is for a system to become more disordered or random. The process that is spontaneous in one direction becomes non-spontaneous in the reverse under a particular set of conditions
The enthalpy acts as the driving force for spontaneous processes if the change in enthalpy is negative. Here, the release of heat is mentioned which means the enthalpy change is negative and is an exothermic reaction

### Thermochemistry II Spontaneity, Entropy and Gibbs Energy – First Year General Chemistry [6]

15 Thermochemistry II Spontaneity, Entropy and Gibbs Energy. We’ve seen from experience that some chemical (and other) processes are spontaneous while others are not
If we look at some processes which we know to be spontaneous, maybe we can find a common trend, or at least eliminate some possibilities.. Obviously, the evolution of enthalpy does not drive a reaction as one might first expect
Equation (1) is very exothermic and this in itself is a strong tendency towards spontaneity. Equation (2) is endothermic and so there is some other driving force which pushes the reaction.

### 11.5: Spontaneous Reactions and Free Energy [7]

– Describe the meaning of a spontaneous reaction in terms of enthalpy and entropy changes.. – Determine the spontaneity of a reaction based on the value of its change in free energy at high and low temperatures.
In this lesson, we will examine a new function called free energy, which combines enthalpy and entropy and can be used to determine whether or not a given reaction will occur spontaneously.. A spontaneous reaction is a reaction that favors the formation of products at the conditions under which the reaction is occurring
A fire is exothermic, which means a decrease in the energy of the system as energy is released to the surroundings as heat. The products of a fire are composed mostly of gases such as carbon dioxide and water vapor, so the entropy of the system increases during most combustion reactions

### SPONTANEITY The first law of thermodynamics tells us about the relationsh.. [8]

SPONTANEITY The first law of thermodynamics tells us about the relationship between the heat absorbed and the work performed on or by a system. It puts no restrictions on the direction of heat now
In fact, all naturally occurring processes whether chemical or physical will tend to proceed spontaneously in one direction only. For example, a gas expanding to fill the available volume, burning carbon in dioxygen giving carbon dioxide
These and many other spontaneously occurring changes show unidirectional change. We may ask ‘ what is the driving force of spontaneously occurring changes ? What determines the direction of a spontaneous change ? In this section, we shall establish some criterion for these processes whether these will take place or not

### 19.1 Spontaneous Processes [9]

Review sections 5.2 – 5.7 in the textbook, especially topics including: The 1st Law of Thermodynamics, Enthalpy, and how q and ΔH are related.. In Chapter 5, the term enthalpy was introduced and in this chapter we will use enthalpy and introduce a new concept, entropy, to tell a more complete story of Thermodynamics.
The first law of Thermodynamics provides the means for accounting for energy, but it gives no hint as to why a particular process occurs in a given direction. A process is considered to be spontaneous if it occurs without outside intervention, and the driving force for a spontaneous process is an increase in entropy

### 7.3 Driving Force [10]

What drives a reaction forward? What force opposes the driving force to result in equilibrium mixtures of reactants and products? This “force” is a result of chemically reactive species and exists today as a topic of debate and study. However, here we focus on the thermodynamic perspective of this question.
– Non-spontaneous reactions or processes do not occur unless an external source of energy is supplied.. – The universe tends toward a state of maximum entropy.
– Electricity flows from higher to lower electrical potential (voltage). – Solutes disperse from high to low concentration (chemical potential)

### Problem 29 For the isothermal expansion of … [FREE SOLUTION] [11]

For the isothermal expansion of a gas into a vacuum, $$\Delta E=0, q=0,$$ and $$w=0 .$$ (a) Is this a spontaneous process? (b) Explain why no work is done by the system during this process. (c) What is the “driving force” for the expansion of the gas: enthalpy or entropy?
The standard free energy of each substance is given in Appendix C. (a) What is the equilibrium constant for the reaction at 298 $$\mathrm{K} ?$$ (b) In principle, is this reaction a feasible method of removing $$S O_{2} ?$$ (c) If $$P_{S O_{2}}=P_{H_{2} S}$$ and the vapor pressure of water is 25 torr, calculate the equilibrium $$\mathrm{SO}_{2}$$ pressure in the system at 298 K
The oxidation of glucose $\left(\mathrm{C}_{6} \mathrm{H}_{12} \mathrm{O}_{6}\right)$$in body tissue produces$$\mathrm{CO}_{2}$ and $$\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}$$ . In contrast, anaerobic decomposition, which occurs during fermentation, produces ethanol $\left(\mathrm{C}_{2} \mathrm{H}_{5} \mathrm{OH}\right)$$and$$\mathrm{CO}_{2} .$ (a) Using data given in Appendix $$\mathrm{C},$$ compare the equilibrium constants for the following reactions: $$\begin{array}{c}{\mathrm{C}_{6} \mathrm{H}_{12} \mathrm{O}_{6}(s)+6 \mathrm{O}_{2}(g) \rightleftharpoons 6 \mathrm{CO}_{2}(g)+6 \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}(l)} \\ {\mathrm{C}_{6} \mathrm{H}_{12} \mathrm{O}_{6}(s) \rightleftharpoons 2 \mathrm{C}_{2} \mathrm{H}_{5} \mathrm{OH}(l)+2 \mathrm{CO}_{2}(g)}\end{array}$$ (b) Compare the maximum work that can be obtained from these processes under standard conditions.

### Spontaneous Reactions entropy and enthalpy Chemistry Tutorial [12]

Chemical reactions tend to proceed spontaneously in the direction that allows for. The enthalpy of a chemical system will be minimised when the enthalpy of the products (Hproducts) is less than the enthalpy of the reactants (Hreactants), that is:
ΔH = Hproducts – Hreactants = a negative number = – kJ mol-1. A reaction in which the sign of the enthalpy change, ΔH, for the reaction is negative, is called an exothermic reaction.
A reaction is therefore more likely to be driven in the forward direction, be spontaneous in the forward direction, if it is an exothermic reaction (that is, if it releases heat energy).. But what about entropy? Entropy is the other driving force of a chemical reaction.

### SOLVED: A process that occurs as described in an equation, without the aid of an outside driving force or applied energy is said to be: (A) Unlikely (B) Energetically forbidden (C) Spontaneous (D) Non [13]

Get 5 free video unlocks on our app with code GOMOBILE. A process that occurs as described in an equation, without the aid of an outside driving force or applied energy is said to be: (A) Unlikely (B) Energetically forbidden (C) Spontaneous (D) Nonspontaneous.
Which of the following processes would be considered reversible? The rusting of iron (A) The melting of ice at 0Â°C (B) The melting of ice at 250Â°C (C) The combustion of butane.. The statement: “All spontaneous processes occur with an increase in entropy in the universe” is also called: The second law of thermodynamics.
If false, explain why.A process that violates the second law of thermodynamics violates the first law of thermodynamics.(b) When a net amount of work is done on a closed system undergoing an internally reversible process, a net heat transfer of energy from the system also occurs.(c) One corollary of the second law of thermodynamics states that the change in entropy of a closed system must be greater than zero or equal to zero.(d) A closed system can experience an increase in entropy only when irreversibilities are present within the system during the process.(e) Entropy is produced in every internally reversible process of a closed system.(f) In an adiabatic and internally reversible process of a closed system, the entropy remains constant.(g) The energy of an isolated system must remain constant, but the entropy can only decrease.. Which of the following is not a valid formulation of the second law of thermodynamics?(a) For any system in thermal equilibrium, there exists a state variable, called entropy, with the property that it can never decrease for a closed system.(b) No process is possible whose sole result is the transfer of heat from a cooler to a hotter body.(c) It is impossible for an engine that operates in a cycle, taking in heat from a hot reservoir at temperature $T_{h}$ and exhausting heat to a cold reservoir at temperature $T_{c}$, to do work with an efficiency greater than $1-T_{c} / T_{h}$.(d) The entropy of any system goes to zero as $T$ (the absolute, or Kelvin) temperature goes to zero.

### Gibbs Free Energy: The Driving Force Behind Chemical Reactions [14]

In this article, we’ll dive deeper into the concept of Gibbs free energy and its significance in chemistry and other fields.. Gibbs free energy, also known as G, is a measure of how much energy is available to do useful work in a chemical reaction at a constant temperature and pressure
This energy can be used to do mechanical work, like pushing a piston, or electrical work, like powering a light bulb. It is also used to predict the spontaneity of a reaction, or whether the reaction will occur naturally without any external input of energy.
If the Gibbs free energy is positive (G > 0), the reaction is not spontaneous and will require an input of energy. If the Gibbs free energy is zero (G = 0), the reaction is at equilibrium, meaning the forward and reverse reactions are occurring at equal rates.

### Thermodynamics | Laws, Definition, & Equations [15]

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.. – heat laws of thermodynamics energy classical thermodynamics system
In broad terms, thermodynamics deals with the transfer of energy from one place to another and from one form to another. The key concept is that heat is a form of energy corresponding to a definite amount of mechanical work.
Rumford’s observation of the proportionality between heat generated and work done lies at the foundation of thermodynamics. Another pioneer was the French military engineer Sadi Carnot, who introduced the concept of the heat-engine cycle and the principle of reversibility in 1824

### Gibbs free energy (G) [16]

One of the important applications of the second law of thermodynamics is to predict the spontaneity of a reaction under a specific set of conditions. A reaction that occurs under the given set of conditions without any external driving force is called a spontaneous reaction
A waterfall runs downhill, but never uphill, spontaneously.. A lump of sugar dissolves spontaneously in a cup of coffee, but never reappears in its original form spontaneously.
The expansion of a gas into an evacuated bulb is a spontaneous process, the reverse process that is gathering of all molecules into one bulb is not. These examples show that the processes that occur spontaneously in one direction, cannot take place in opposite direction spontaneously.

### Sources

1. http://drfus.com/chapter-19/19-1-spontaneous-processes#:~:text=A%20process%20is%20considered%20to,is%20an%20increase%20in%20entropy.
4. https://c0thuysontnhp.edu.vn/14-which-of-the-following-is-not-a-good-driving-force-for-spontaneity-guides/
5. https://www.studocu.com/en-us/messages/question/2662522/for-spontaneous-processes-which-of-the-following-is-false-a-a-process-that-is-spontaneous-in-one
6. https://ecampusontario.pressbooks.pub/queenschem1/chapter/15-thermochemistry-ii/
7. https://chem.libretexts.org/Courses/University_of_Kentucky/UK%3A_CHE_103_-_Chemistry_for_Allied_Health_(Soult)/Chapters/Chapter_11%3A_Properties_of_Reactions/11.5%3A_Spontaneous_Reactions_and_Free_Energy